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The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, Manganese isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology and radiometric dating.
Mn–Cr isotopic ratios reinforce the evidence from ).
Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode (electron acceptor) material in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.
In biology, manganese(II) ions function as cofactors for a large variety of enzymes with many functions.
Michele Mercati called magnesia negra manganesa, and finally the metal isolated from it became known as manganese (German: Mangan).
The name magnesia eventually was then used to refer only to the white magnesia alba (magnesium oxide), which provided the name magnesium for the free element when it was isolated much later.
This oxidation state is also seen in the mineral rhodochrosite (manganese(II) carbonate).
Manganese(II) most commonly exists with a high spin, S = 5/2 ground state because of the high pairing energy for manganese(II).
The 3 oxidation state is known in compounds like manganese(III) acetate, but these are quite powerful oxidizing agents and also prone to disproportionation in solution, forming manganese(II) and manganese(IV).Solid compounds of manganese(III) are characterized by its strong purple-red color and a preference for distorted octahedral coordination resulting from the Jahn-Teller effect.The oxidation state 5 can be produced by dissolving manganese dioxide in molten sodium nitrite.Manganate (VI) salts can be produced by dissolving Mn compounds, such as manganese dioxide, in molten alkali while exposed to air.Permanganate ( 7 oxidation state) compounds are purple, and can give glass a violet color.